Friday, May 22, 2020
Computer Hardware Engineering Computer hardware engineers research, develop, and test computer systems and components such as processors, circuit boards, memory devices, and many more (Bureau of Labor Statistics). They design new computer hardware, create blueprints of computer equipment to be built. Test the completed models of the computer hardware that they design. Update existing equipment so that it will work will new software. Oversee the manufacturing process for the computer hardware. Maintain knowledge of computer engineering trends and new technology(Bureau of Labor Statistics). In order to be a computer hardware engineer, you will need at least a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in computer engineering. The full-time 9 month tuition feeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Nvidia is a company that build the leading computer components and processors for mobile devices. Nvidia has intern co-op programs that help you gain experience, you just need to submit a resume, and attend a Nvidia i nformation session or visit them at a career fair (NVIDIA). When I am in college I am going to apply for an internship at Nvidia to get some experience for what I am going to do for a living. After that, I can put that I worked as an intern for Nvidia on my resume for a full-time job. Some students participate in internships while in school to gain some practical experience (Bureau of Labor Statistics). Most employers prefer to hire computer engineers with at least 2 years of experience (Bureau of Labor Statistics). I am hoping to be an intern for Nvidia and work there for at least 2 years while in college. If not, I might look into working for AMD as an intern. There are some subjects to study in high school for engineers like: physics, chemistry, computer science, geometry, algebra II, calculus, English; if available, electronics (Science Buddies). I have already completed or am taking most of these subjects already. I just need to take physics and calculus soon. Most computer har dware engineers work full time. They work about 40 hours per week (Science Buddies). They only work on weekdays, so that means I will have someShow MoreRelatedEssay on Computer Hardware Engineering1442 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespowerful. Computer hardware engineering is the designing, building, and testing of computer hardware and computer systems. Computer hardware engineers acquire a persistent and detail- oriented nature. Through their work, computer hardware engineers get a wide range of opportunity, but they are also loaded with seemingly endless work on their hands. Ultimately, computer hardware engineering provides a cause for innovative thinkers and creative designers, labeling it as a job worth pursuing. Computer historyRead MoreComputer Hardware Engineering : The Advancement Of Technology1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesComputer Hardware Engineering The advancement in technology has made an evolution in the world today. Everything people use now is because of the advancement of technology. The social media used now and all of the jobs are based around todayÃ¢â¬â¢s technology. Technology has changed the work industry in everything from textile making, to computer chips. The machines and all of the tools used we designed and made with technology. Computer engineers are working every day to make technology better. ComputerRead MoreA Future in Computer Hardware Engineering Essay examples922 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesA Future in Computer Hardware Engineering Computer Hardware Engineering is something that sparked my interest when I was younger. I was very young when I was first introduced to computers and consoles and such. It mainly started when I was very young and my older brother showed me video games, on systems like the Gameboy. The Gameboy was basically how I started to become interested in video games, and after the handhelds I began to play on consoles. Then in the past couple of years I startedRead MoreWhat It Takes to Become a Computer Engineer Essay1421 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesNowadays people enjoy high tech computers, smart phones and all sorts of gadgets. But before people can enjoy them someone has to create the program to run the device. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s were computer engineers come in. The field itself branches off into many fields including cybersecurity, networking, computer software, computer hardware. They have the difficult task of designing the body and mind of the computer. Computer engineering is an ever-growing field that makes computers smaller, faster, and more efficientRead MoreCareer Paper: Computer Hardware Engineer1830 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesare out there today. Computer engineering is a job that is constantly leading to the development of new technology, which is always changing as the years go. by (Ã¢â¬Å"ElectricalÃ¢â¬ para. 1). Computer hardware engineers much research, design, develop, and test computer systems (Ã¢â¬Å"ComputerÃ¢â¬ ... U.S. para. 1). Also, they could improve processes, circuit boards, memory devices, networks, and routers (Ã¢â¬Å"ComputerÃ¢â¬ ... U.S. para. 1). The skills that are needed to be a computer hardware engineer are complex problemRead MoreThe Field Of Computer Engineering1347 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesacronym for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) are attractive for many prospective students. My own personal interest lies in the field of computer engineering, which is categorized as a STEM career and reaps the benefits of such a classification. The field of computer engineering requires relatively modest education, but still rewards employees with a comfortable life, numerous benefits, and personal fulfillment. The qualifications of working as a computer engineer are relatively modestRead MoreBehind The Scenes Of Technology1463 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagestodayÃ¢â¬â¢s age, most people have a smartphone or a tablet or a laptop or maybe a computer, but do they know how their phone or computer actually works? To most people, you just type away or press a button and then it magically does whatever you want it to do. However, there is more going on in a computer or a phone than just the simplicity of pressing a button. Better yet, who actually makes all this stuff? Who makes a computer or phone? Who designs these things? Who engineers all these technological appliancesRead MoreComputer Engineering : Becoming A Computer Engineer1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesComputer Engineering Computer engineering is a very extensive, challenging career. To become a computer engineer you need years of experience and college education. Many people think this career is easy and good paying, but is not that easy, excessive amount of knowledge is needed to become a top class engineer in this field, but that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean it is an impossible task. One must understand that computer engineering is a challenge since before one begins studying it. With that kept in mind anRead MoreComputer Engineering : A Very Time Consuming Job1221 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesComputer Engineering is a very time consuming job. With taking most of your time computers and staying late rather than being home. When seeking a career as a computer engineer, a person should really take into consideration the knowledgeable skills, immense responsibility, and the adaptation of constant improvement of technology, and the best institution for this training is Texas AM, College Station. Computer engineers provide information and data processing for certain computer firms and organizationsRead MoreArticle Review : Security Rule Checking Of Ic Design1194 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespublished in the journal Computers in August 2016. This memo will focus on the readability, writing qualities, and scientific methodologies. About Journal Computers is an annual journal that publishes by IEEE Computer Society. It is peer reviewed journal that can be found online and hardcopy. Most of the articles which were written by computer researchers were about all stuff about computer such as hardware, software, new applications, etc. The target audiences are computer scientists, engineers,
Friday, May 8, 2020
This essay looks at the opposing views of Macaulay and Gandhi on improving both the social and political structure of India. Macaulay suggested that education in english will produce colonial subjects that will produce a class of Indian men to think like the British. This ultimately aids in the goal to have British rule in India. Thomas Macaulay was the chair of the Committee of Public Instruction in 1835 British India. He has argued in his minute that the traditional Sanskrit and Arabic education in India is useless, and thus education in English language and literature should be introduced. He believed that by introducing English literature studies in India, British would be aiding Indians to see and understand a new world beyond the Vedas and Shastras which only taught religion. He also believed that English education would provide skills to young men to make a living for themselves so they can live independent of the state. From GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view, he believed that Ind ians should be able to rule themselves without English monarchy. Macaulay s proposition goes against GandhiÃ¢â¬â¢s satyagraha (i.e. passive resistance) practice because he believed that by obeying the British, Indians were voluntarily becoming their slaves. The satyagraha movement was one of the leading reasons for the British rule to end in India as the satyagrahis practiced non-violence as a method of rebellion against the British and their laws. Ultimately both Macaulay and Gandhi wanted the nation to
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
After reexamining the ROV and SCUBA transect informations, it is clear that there have been important impacts to the Marine environment caused by the lacrimation of wood at Attwood Bay. This was evidenced by the comparative volumes and distributions of wood waste nowadays on the ocean floor during the 2006 and 2009 site studies. Datas collected from the 2006 ROV and 2009 SCUBA site studies indicated that the sum of wood waste accumulated at this site has increased since the initial site visit. We will write a custom essay sample on Analysis Of Wood Waste At Attwood Bay Environmental Sciences Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now A greater proportion of the substrate was seeable during the 2006 study as compared to the 2009 picture footage where much of the substrate was wholly covered with wood waste and accordingly its composing could non be determined. This site exhibited low species diverseness and copiousness, in 2006 and 2009 as compared with unimpacted sites. It is good documented that accretions of bark and other woody dust on the ocean floor negatively impacts benthal infaunal and epifaunal diverseness and copiousness ( Kirkpatrick et.al 1998, Pease, 1974, Conlan, K.E. and Ellis, D.V. , 1979. and Jackson, R.G. 1986 ) . Wood waste negatively impacts benthal communities as it is known to leach potentially toxic organic compounds into the H2O, has a high biological O demand and can surround benthal ( peculiarly infaunal ) communities ( Pease, 1974 ) . The exact nature and impacts of wood waste leachates is non to the full understood, nevertheless these lignin-based substances are known to precipitate o ut in sea H2O, and believed to settle on and negatively impact benthal home grounds ( Duval, 1980 ) . Areas of bark accretion have been found to hold a higher biological O demand than environing deposits whereby take downing the dissolved O content of the superimposed H2O ( Pease, 1974 and Picard, 2002 ) . Many benthal invertebrates ( peculiarly infaunal ) are unable to last in anoxic conditions and therefore are good indexs of alterations in benthal home ground conditions ( Pease, 1974 and Samis et.al. , 1999 ) . Additionally, wood waste that accumulates on the ocean floor clutters benthic infaunal marine life ( peculiarly pelecypods ) whereby cut downing the populations of quarry species available to larger benthal marauders such as pediculosis pubiss etc. ( Picard, 2003 ) . The deficiency of pelecypods and other seeable infaunal beings ( with the exclusion of tube-dwelling windflowers ) at this site is to be expected given the sum of wood waste screen. A uninterrupted bed of wood waste hinders the colony and enlisting of many benthal beings and can cut down critical shoal nearshore habitat utilised for rise uping juveniles. ( Samis et.al,1999 ) . Many of the species observed in the study pictures were known to be more resilient to wood dust, viz. sea Cucumis sativuss ( Parastichopus californicus ) , assorted sea stars ( viz. Pycnopodia helianthoides ) , brickle stars ( Ophiuoroidea ) and assorted fish species ( Kirkpatrick et.al. 1998 ) . These species are motile and are hence less easy smo thered by wood waste accretions and are by and large suspension feeders ( brickle stars ) or detritivores and hence do non trust on a healthy infaunal community for nutrient. It is believed that sea cucumbers ( Parastichopus californicus ) provender on the abundant bug populations populating the bed of wood waste, and Sun stars are general marauders known to feed on sea Cucumis sativuss ( University of Michigan Museum of Biology, 2009 ) . As good, the high frequence of ascertained elephantine swimming sea slug ( Dendronotus flag ) was sensible given that they feed on the tentacles of the tubing brooding windflower ( Pachycerianthus fimbriatus ) and layer their eggs on the tubing. Overall the species copiousness and diverseness at this site was significantly less than comparable home grounds non impacted by logging activities. Reduced available O, coupled with potentially toxic leachates and the surrounding consequence of thick dust screen explains why a decrease in species diversene ss and population complexness is observed in countries where water-based logging has occurred, including the Attwood Bay log shit site. Past site appraisals conducted for BCTS have shown that deep-water home grounds are by and large the most to a great extent impacted by accretions of bark and other woody dust. Attwood is no exclusion, despite the fact that the shit is comparatively shallow, the impacts of wood waste have still been found to increase with depth ( Figure 5 ) . Severe impacts were found throughout the site get downing between -4 to -6m deepness and go oning beyond the furthest extent of the SCUBA transects. Datas collected from the ROV study showed these impacts widening to ( and probably beyond ) -50m deepness. Based on these observations, and observations at similar log shit sites where impacts to habitat addition with deepness, it is expected that terrible impacts at this site besides continue into deeper H2O. Although unimpacted deep-water home grounds frequently exhibit lower species diverseness and copiousnesss than shallow-water home grounds due to cut down light incursion and primary productive ness ; the species copiousness in deeper countries at this site is still less than one would anticipate to happen in countries which have non been impacted by wood lacrimation activities. Wood waste is transported in the Marine environment by moving ridges, air current and currents and frequently deposited in deep H2O countries ( Kirkpatrick et.al. 1998 ) . Conveyance of woody dust to deeper countries expands the impact country from shallower to deeper H2O. This site is non known to see important current flow and hence reduced current and tidal flushing in deeper countries has resulted in the accretion of beds of wood waste making a smothering cover over the sea floor. The slow dislocation of this deposited wood waste is besides expected to hold increased anoxic conditions for benthal beings, cut downing species diverseness and copiousness. Picard et Al. identified that impacts of wood waste can last many decennaries and even centuries ( 2003 ) . The possible exists for the deep H2O home ground impacts observed in Attwood Bay to be long permanent as these terrible impacts were observed even in 2006 after 7 old ages of inaction at the site ( Price, 2007 ) . Pulling decisions on whether or non a site is showing marks of recovery is a cardinal outlook of the appraisal procedure. While this piece of information is built-in towards decision-making, A ; acirc ; Ãâ ?recovery A ; acirc ; Ãâ Ã¢â ¢ has yet to be defined due to the limited sum of scientific information available. At present, the criterion technique for log shit appraisals incorporates merely the aggregation of macro-epifaunal information ( i.e. SCUBA and ROV picture footage and still snap ) . While this information has the ability to talk to the more obvious alterations in home ground and recovery, in the absence of more infaunal sampling ( i.e. testing sediment nucleuss for the presence of juvenile pelecypods, polychetes, and other index species ) , decisions drawn on the true province of recovery are limited. Get downing to concentrate more attempt on measuring the infaunal community at a historical log shit site may work to better our apprehension of recovery and final ly consequence in better direction procedures. How to cite Analysis Of Wood Waste At Attwood Bay Environmental Sciences Essay, Essay examples
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
Nora And Hedda Nora and Hedda's Struggle for Independence In Isben's two plays, A Doll's House and Hedda Gabler, one character of each play breaks the stereotype or mold that is put on them. These two characters are Nora and Hedda. There are likenesses as well as differences between the two, however. In A Doll's House Nora is the protagonist, while, in Hedda Gabler, Isben chooses to make Hedda the antagonist. Both Nora and Hedda are caught in a masculine world, but take a different approach to gaining their independence from their male counterparts. Nora chooses to simply walk away from the problem she faces. This action goes along with most mothers tell their children when they face similar situations. Nora is suppressed by Torvald's words. She tries to help her husband and, according to the author, saves his life. Torvald is unaware of her sacrifice and is ashamed of Nora's deceitful behavior. She is finally sick of being called a little skylark and a spendthrift and decides to leave Torvald, which is unheard during that time. The play ends with Nora slamming the door and Torvald mumbling to himself. Audiences react so violently to this ending because it shows a woman taking charge of her life and breaking the mold that stereotypes her. Hedda takes a different approach to changing the circumstances that stereotypes place her in. Being a woman, Hedda is seen as meek and mild by the men in Hedda Gabler. Her dream is to control and eventually ruin a human destiny, which means she must gain the trust of, or seduce, a human being. Her character of choice, and old flame, is L?vborg. Hedda doesn't escape her problems and run for cover like Nora did. Instead, Hedda takes her problems head on in hopes of changing them for her benefit. Her sarcastic tone and evil behavior make a dangerous combination. The reader experiences this mix when Hedda convinces L?vborg to kill himself. Eventually this ?head-on? approach was too much for her and she takes her own life rather than be suppressed by a male. Nora and Hedda have two totally different personalities and character traits. Nora's can be seen as independent and free willed, while Hedda's traits are seen as evil, selfish, and cold hearted. They are the same, however, when it comes to their struggle for independence from the men in their life. In both of Isben's plays he places men is the characters' life that causes each one make a decision to go against the stereotypical woman. Nora chooses to identify the problem and get away from it, but Hedda decides to take matters into her own hands and control the problem for personal gain.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Kabuki is one of Japan's traditional theatrical arts. Its inception goes back to the latter part of the 16th century and, with extensive and continuous evolution, it has flourished and remains a very popular dramatic art form in Japan drawing large audiences across the country. During the period generally referred to as the Edo Era, during which much of the development of kabuki took place, distinction between the warrior class and the commoners was more rigidly observed than at any other time in Japan's history. The art of kabuki was cultivated mainly by the merchants in those days. They had be come increasingly powerful economically, but had to remain socially inferior as they belonged to the commoner class. To them kabuki was perhaps most significant as the artistic means by which to express their emotions under such conditions. Thus, the fundamental themes of kabuki plays are conflicts between humanity and the feudalistic system. It is largely due to this humanistic quality of the art that it gained such an enduring popularity among the general public of those days and remains this way today. A unique feature of the kabuki art is the fact that it has no actresses whatsoever. All female parts are played by male impersonators known as onnagata. The players of the kabuki drama in its primitive stage were principally women, and with the increasing popularity of kabuki, many of the actresses began to attract undue attention from male admirers. The authorities felt that this would lead to a serious demoralization of the public and in 1629 the theatrical appearance of women was officially banned. However, since kabuki as an art form was already accepted by the public, men immediately took over and have continued performing to the present. The ban on actresses was in effect for about 250 years. In the mean time kabuki brought to perfection the art of the onnagata. As a result, there was no room for actresses in kabuki whe... Free Essays on Kabuki Free Essays on Kabuki Kabuki is one of Japan's traditional theatrical arts. Its inception goes back to the latter part of the 16th century and, with extensive and continuous evolution, it has flourished and remains a very popular dramatic art form in Japan drawing large audiences across the country. During the period generally referred to as the Edo Era, during which much of the development of kabuki took place, distinction between the warrior class and the commoners was more rigidly observed than at any other time in Japan's history. The art of kabuki was cultivated mainly by the merchants in those days. They had be come increasingly powerful economically, but had to remain socially inferior as they belonged to the commoner class. To them kabuki was perhaps most significant as the artistic means by which to express their emotions under such conditions. Thus, the fundamental themes of kabuki plays are conflicts between humanity and the feudalistic system. It is largely due to this humanistic quality of the art that it gained such an enduring popularity among the general public of those days and remains this way today. A unique feature of the kabuki art is the fact that it has no actresses whatsoever. All female parts are played by male impersonators known as onnagata. The players of the kabuki drama in its primitive stage were principally women, and with the increasing popularity of kabuki, many of the actresses began to attract undue attention from male admirers. The authorities felt that this would lead to a serious demoralization of the public and in 1629 the theatrical appearance of women was officially banned. However, since kabuki as an art form was already accepted by the public, men immediately took over and have continued performing to the present. The ban on actresses was in effect for about 250 years. In the mean time kabuki brought to perfection the art of the onnagata. As a result, there was no room for actresses in kabuki whe... Free Essays on Kabuki While reading the short story Ã¢â¬Å"Flower-Eating CroneÃ¢â¬ by Enchi Fumiko, the one obstacle that I had with the text dealt with the Kabuki theatre. I kept wondering what the Kabuki theatre was all about, since it was mentioned throughout the story. I have very little experience with Japanese culture, so I thought it would be a good idea to see what exactly the Kabuki theatre entails. I feel this topic is significant because it seems like Kabuki theatre plays a major role in the Japanese culture. I feel the following information would only enhance a readerÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of this story if they actually knew a little background on the aesthetics of the Kabuki theatre. IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to give a brief explanation about certain key aspects of the Kabuki theatre and these aspects are the background, repertoire, the aesthetic elements, the stage, and finally the actors. Kabuki theatre is one of JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s traditional theatrical art programs. The Kabuki theatre started around the 16th century in the period known as the Edo Era century. This was the period in which Kabuki developed the most. The merchant class was the class that did most of the groundwork for the Kabuki theatre. To the commoners Kabuki theatre was a way to express their emotions about their living conditions. (i.g. social class difference). The feudalistic system and conflicts between humanity are the two main themes that are found throughout each play. This form of theatre is constantly evolving and making changes for the better. Kabuki theatre does have a big following among the Japanese. The thing about Kabuki theatre that amazed me the most is the fact the males play both female and male roles. Yes this means that there are no female actresses in Kabuki theatre. These males are known as onnagata. The use of woman was banned in 1629 in order to protect the public from demoralization. Kabuki theatre has a huge repertoire of around 300 plays. This number is s... Free Essays on Kabuki JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s dances and dramas as they are seen today contain 1300 years of continuous uninterrupted history. This prodigious feat of conservation, theatrically speaking, makes Japan an extraordinary and unique country. In all of Asia, where tradition generally is sanctified and change eschewed, Japan stands as the only country whose theatre is its entirety has never suffered an eclipse nor undergone any drastic revivification or renovation. The most traditional form of Japanese theatre is kabuki. Its origin goes back to the latter part of the 16th century and, with extensive and continuous evolution, it has now been perfected into a state of classical refinement. Though not as flourishing as it once was, the kabuki theatre retains wide popularity among the people, and is in fact drawing quite large audiences even now. During the period generally referred to as the Edo Era, during which much of the development of kabuki took place, distinctions between the warrior class and the commoners was more rigidly observed than at any other time in Japan's history. Mainly the merchants cultivated the art of kabuki in those days. They had become increasingly powerful economically, but had to remain socially inferior as they belonged to the commoner class. To them kabuki was most significant as the artistic means by which to express their emotions under the prevailing conditions. Thus, the fundamental themes of kabuki plays are conflicts between humanity and the feudalistic system. It is largely due to this humanistic quality of the art that it gained such an enduring popularity among the general public of those days and remains this way today. A unique feature of the kabuki art, and possibly the most significant detail and in keeping with the kabuki spirit of unusualness, is the fact that it has no actresses whatsoever (Bowers 325). Male impersonators known as onnagata play all female parts. The players of the kabuki drama in its primitive stage...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Sea Shells by the Seashore - Practice the 'S' Sound Tongue twisters are fun words games we use to challenge our pronunciation. As an English learner, you can use tongue twisters to help with pronunciation of certain sounds. This tongue twisterÃ is perfect for practicing your s sounds. Use lots of breath to help you get the hissing s sound strong. Remember that s is voiceless - pronounced without the voice by pushing air between your teeth and through open and rounded lips. Sea Shells by the Sea Shore She sells sea shells by the seashore.The shells she sells are surely seashells.So if she sells shells on the seashore,Im sure she sells seashore shells. Improve Your Pronunciation of S Sea Shells by the Seashore helps you practice s. The s sound is voiceless and sometimes confused with the z sound which is voiced, or the sh sound which is also voiceless.Ã Practice the difference in these sounds with minimal pairs - words that only have a difference between the s, z and sh sound.Ã sip - ship - zipsea - z - shesign - shinezap - sap Feel the Difference Between Voiceless and Voiced Sounds Place your hand on your throat and say sea and you will feel no vibration for the s sound. Place your hand on your throat and say zebra and youll feel no vibration at all for the z - a voiced sound.
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Culture and globalisation - Essay Example Benjamin Barber is one of the proponents of the idea that the notion of globalization is destructive for it threatens morals and religious values of people, the distinctiveness of cultures and can turn the world into one big market. There are four main points in Barbers argumentation. First of all, he presents the notion of Ã¢â¬Å"theme parkingÃ¢â¬ which is Ã¢â¬Å"a kind of diversity but it is the diversity of a theme parkÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Globalization and CultureÃ¢â¬ 9). By this, he means that even though there is a diversity, it is simulated, artificial, and, in fact, is far from authenticity. Secondly, Barber argues that globalization is homogenization and standardization of culture that affects peoples cultural and aesthetic values, such as eating fast food instead of spending time with family at a dinner table. Also, the opponent of globalization states that more powerful markets, such as the American one, tend to master and destroy the weaker markets and, consequently, inf luence other cultures. Finally, Barber says that globalization is a threat not only to aesthetic but to religious and moral values of people, especially of the representatives of cultures that differ a lot from Ã¢â¬Å"McWorldÃ¢â¬ , such as Islamic, Hindu, and Judaic cultures, and that to some extent this threat gives rise to terrorism. Tyler Cowan, in his turn, believes that globalization is the positive trend in the development of the modern society and the entire world. He agues that Ã¢â¬Å"markets support diversity and freedom of choice, and trade gives a greater opportunity for artists to express their creative inspiration (Ã¢â¬Å"Glibalization and CultureÃ¢â¬ 8). In addition to this, Cowan claims that globalization does tend to increase difference between cultures, and at the same time it frees difference from geographical location. Tyler Cowan also refutes four arguments presented by Benjamin